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Research Abstracts

AAAID has established the Applied Research Department in 2000 in order to reach the best agricultural practices in its companies. Accordingly, a number of research stations were established in a number of Arab countries, including:

  1. Crop Production Research Station in Rainfed Agriculture (Agadi-Sudan).
  2. Vegetable and Fruit Production Research Station (Umm Dom-Sudan).
  3. Crop production research plant in rainfed agriculture (Gedaref-Sudan).
  4. Crop Production Research Station in High Salinity Land (Al-Baqir-Sudan).
  5. Agricultural Research Station (Rousseau-Islamic Republic of Mauritania).
  6. Bandasmilini Research Station (Comoros).

These agricultural stations studied the effect of variety, fertilizers, different tillage systems, control of weeds, distances and observations on the production and productivity of different crops. The abstracts of these researches are as follows:
For more information about these researches please contact us at: info@aaaid.org

Research experiments in rainfed areas:

I. Rain-Fed Crop Production Research Unit (Agadi):

The experiments included 6 main areas: (Experiments of varieties, fertilization experiments, experiments of different incineration systems, herb control experiments, plant density experiments, distance experiments, observations experiments).

1. Variety Trials

1.1. Comparison of productivity and adaptation of sorghum varieties:

The experiment was carried out to compare the number of four varieties of sorghum crop, namely: (Wad Ahmed, hybrid sorghum 1, Pannar 606, Tabat).

  • Objective: Selection of the finest varieties of maize in terms of productivity and quality.
  • Results: Wad Ahmed superiority over other varieties, as well as resistance to Boda parasites.

1.2. Comparison of Sorghum Verities:

The experiment was carried out to compare seven varieties of sorghum crop: (Wad Ahmed, Hagega, Tabat, Arfa Gadamak, Wahi, Pacific 501, Pacific 509, Pacific 537). 

  • Objective: To reach the high-yielding varieties suitable for the conditions of rainfed agriculture under the system of agriculture without plowing.
  • Results: Pacific 509 was superior to other brands.

1.3. Comparison of productivity and adaptation of varieties of sun flower crop:

The experiment was carried out to compare 4 varieties of hybrid and open samples of the sun flower, namely: Hysun 33, Damazin 3/1, Pannar 7353, Pannar 7392.

  • Objective: To choose the best quality of the sun flower crop in terms of productivity and quality.
  • Results: Hysub33 superior to other varieties significantly higher.

1.4. Comparison of varieties of sun flower crop:

Comparison of 7 different varieties of sun flower, namely: (Hysun 33, Hysun 47, Pannar 7033, Hysun 38, Mass 96 A, Mass 97 A, Pannar 7351).

  • Objective: To reach highly productive varieties suitable for the conditions of rainfed agriculture under the system of agriculture without plowing.
  • Results: Product superiority Pannar 7033 is superior to other varieties.

1.5. Comparison of varieties of sesame crop:

Comparison of 4 varieties of sesame, namely: (Gadarif, Bash, Promo, Khider).

  • Objective: Access to high-yielding varieties suitable for rain-fed agriculture under the zero tillage system.
  • Results: The superiority of the class superiority of the class Bash on other varieties.

1.6. Comparison of varieties of millet:

Comparison of 5 different millet varieties: (Pacific 902, Pacific 931, Pacific 982, Aukashana, Wad Ashana).

  • Objective: Access to varieties of high productivity and suitable conditions of rainfed agriculture under the system of agriculture without plowing.
  • Results: The product is superior to Pacific 982.

2. Fertilization Trials:

2.1. Microelement Fertilization: 

I. Study the effects of adding of Zinc and Boron as Leaf Fertilizers to fill Grains of Sunflower drop:

In 1999, the sunflowers in the Agadi project showed the presence of empty grains. Among the many reasons provided for this problem was the hypothesized deficiency of Zinc and Boron. Therefore, this trial was designed specifically to check whether this hypothesis was grounded. 
Results: Based upon the results, the Boron addition boosted the number of full grains in sunflowers by 95% and had a significant effect on increasing productivity (1,584 kg/hectare).

II. Study the effects of adding of Zinc and Phosphorus to fill Grains of Sunflowers:

This trial aimed to find a solution for empty grains in (Hysun 33) sunflowers, which appeared in the Agadi project. Among the many reasons provided for this problem was the hypothesized deficiency of zinc and phosphorus. Therefore, this trial was designed specifically to check whether this hypothesis was grounded. 
Results: According to the results obtained, the zinc addition increased the number of full grains, but it had no effect upon productivity. However, the phosphorus addition boosted productivity.

2.2. Macroelement Fertilization:

I. Study the effects of adding Phosphorus on Growth and Productivity of Cotton:
This trial was set in order to show the effect of phosphorus fertilizer upon the productivity of rain-fed (Barack 67 B) cotton in the Agadi project. 
Results: Cotton productivity was significantly increased by increasing the level of phosphorus addition.

II. Study the effects of adding Phosphorus on Growth and Productivity of Sorghum:
This trial was set in order to show the effect of phosphorus fertilizer upon the productivity of Wad Ahmed sorghum. 
Results: The results showed an increasing production of sorghum in response to additional doses of phosphorus.

III. Study the effects of Various Nitrogen Sources on Growth and Productivity of Sorghum:
This trial was conducted in order to reveal the effects of various nitrogen sources upon the production of rain-fed Wad Ahmed sorghum in the Agadi project.
Results: There were no significant differences in the presence of sensory constraints (delayed planting and emergence of pests).

IV. Study the effects of Various Nitrogen Sources on Growth and Productivity of Sunflowers:
This trial was conducted in order to reveal the effects of various nitrogen sources upon the production of rain-fed Hysun 33 sunflowers in the Agadi project.
Results: Ammonium sulphate nitrate exceeds the number of grains in the head and the weight of a thousand grains.

V. Study the effects of Various Nitrogen Sources on Growth and Productivity in Cotton: This trial was conducted in order to reveal the effects of various nitrogen sources upon the production of rain-fed (Barack 67 B) cotton in the Agadi project.
Results: There were no significant differences, although Urea treatment led to an increase in productivity.

VI. Study the effects of NPK Fertilizer on Productivity of Sorghum:
This trial was intended to identify the effects of NPK fertilization upon the production of rain-fed Wad Ahmed sorghum in the Agadi project. 
Results: addition of potassium and phosphorus had not increased production (with respect to the N3 fertilizer only).

VII. NPK Addition to Sesame:
This trial was set in order to compare NPK additions (17:17:17) with the fertilization plan applied in the fertilization program implemented by the Promo Sesame Farmers.

VIII. Nitrogen Fertilizer Fragmentation:
This trial was designed in order to compare ammonium nitrate fertilizer, when added once at a rate of N1.5 / acre, with the treatment applied in the Farmers' Program (N1 upon planting + N0.5 after 4 to 6 weeks following planting).

IX. Fertilization of Sorghum Using Various Nitrogen Fertilizers:
This trial was implemented in order to identify the economics of various nitrogen fertilizers in sorghum planting.
Results: The results obtained showed an increase in the production of Wad Ahmed sorghum when the fertilization dose (NPK 20:5:10 + Mgo 1.5) was used.

3. Effects of Different Tillage Methods Trials:

3.1. Study of the impact of tillage systems on the growth and productivity of sorghum crop:
This trial was implemented in order to compare different tillage methods, namely the Zero-Tillage method, the Minimum-Tillage method and the traditional tillage-based methods, in terms of their effects upon the growth and production of sorghum (Wad Ahmed).
Results: There were no significant differences between the coefficients. Many obstacles that may have affected the results accompanied this experiment.


3.2. Study of the impact of Tillage Methods on Growth and Productivity in Sorghum:
This trial was implemented in order to compare different tillage methods, i.e. the Zero-Tillage method, the Minimum-Tillage method and the traditional tillage-based methods, in terms of their effects upon the growth and production of sunflowers (Hysun 33).
Results: There were no significant differences between different farming systems.

4. Weed Control Trials:

4.1.  Effects of Dual Gold and Gizaprim on Weed Control in Sorghum:
This trial was implemented in order to identify the best concentration of the two herbicides Dual Gold and Gizaprim for sorghum weed control in the Agadi project.
Based upon the results obtained:

  • Use of the recommended Dual Gold dose (0.48 kg per feddan) as the active ingredient increased production by 64%, in comparison to the fields in which the weed was manually controlled, whereas the use of the recommended Gizaprim dose (0.2 kg per feddan) as the active ingredient increased production by 93%, in comparison to the fields in which the weed was manually controlled;
  • Use of Dual Gold and Gizaprim together showed good results, in comparison to the fields in which the weed was manually controlled; and
  • There were production differences between the fields in which the weed was controlled by Dual Gold and all other fields.

4.2. Chemical control of Buda parasite in the sorghum crop:
This trial was set in order to examine the effects of herbicides in terms of the control of Boda in Wad Ahmed sorghum.

5. Plant Density Trials:

5.1. Plant Density in Cotton (5 – 7 – 10 Plants/Linear meter):
This trial was set in order to compare different rates of plant density in cotton (Barack)  in order to identify the best plant density for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of cotton.
Results: Increase productivity when planting 7 plants per meter long.

5.2. Plant Density in Sorghum (10 – 14 – 20 Plants/Linear metre):
This trial was set in order to compare different rates of plant density in (Wad Ahmed) sorghum in order to identify the best plant density for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of sorghum.
Results: Increase productivity when planting 14 plants per meter long.

5.3. Plant Density in Maize (5 – 7 – 10 Plants/Linear metre):
This trial was set in order to compare different rates of plant density in (Banama) maize in order to identify the best plant density for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of maize.
Results: Increase productivity when planting 10 plants per meter long.

5.4. Plant Density in Sunflowers (5 – 7 – 10 Plants/Linear metre):
This trial was set in order to compare different rates of plant density in (Hysun 33) sunflowers in order to identify the best plant density for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of sunflowers.
Results: Increase productivity when planting 5 plants per meter long.

6. Row Space Trials:

6.1. Row Space in Cotton (0.75, 0.90 and 1.00 meters):
This trial was set in order to compare different row spaces in (Barack 67 B) cotton in order to identify the best row space for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of cotton.
Results: Increase productivity when farming at distance 0.90 m between plants.

6.2. Row Space in Sorghum (0.60, 0.75 and 0.90 meters):
This trial was set in order to compare different row spaces in (Wad Ahmed) sorghum in order to identify the best row space for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of sorghum.
Results: Increase productivity when farming at distance 0.60 m between plants.

6.3. Row Space in Maize (0.60, 0.75 and 0.90 meters):
This trial was set in order to compare different row spaces in (Banama) maize in order to identify the best row space for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of maize.
Results: Increase productivity when farming at distance 0.75 m between plants.

6.4. Row Space in Sunflowers (0.60, 0.75 and 0.90 meters):
This trial was set in order to compare different row spaces in (Hysun 33) sunflowers in order to identify the best row space for the rain-fed, zero-tillage cultivation of sunflowers.
Results: Increase productivity when farming at distance 0.75 m between plants.

7. Observation Trials:

7.1. Observation of Sesame Varieties:

  • Objective: To compare the two new sub-species (Gadarif and Bash) with the dominant and branching species (Promo) in a relatively large area.
  • Results: Bash is superior in terms of productivity compared to other varieties.

7.2. Observation of Legumes:

  • Objective: To Viewing different varieties of legumes to monitor their performance and productivity.
  • Crops: Green gram, Cluster bean, Cowpea, Pigeon pea, Soya bean.

7.3. Observation of Soil Moisture in Farms:

  • Objective: Monitoring soil moisture content changes during the season and linking them to the achieved productivity

7.4. GPS Measurement of the Boundaries and Areas of Farms:

  • Objective: Identification of the actual cultivated areas and their limits.

7.5. Hand-Held Machine Planning and V-Hoe Farming:

  • Objective: Determination of the suitability and efficiency of the hand-planning machine designed in Agadi workshop compared to manual farming (V-hoe).

7.6. Harvesting of sesame by Binder harvester:

  • Objective: To find a suitable sesame harvesting machine and compare it in terms of efficiency, speed and cost with other sesame harvesting methods.

7.7. Plant Density Trial:

  • Objective: Study the effect of the distance between the rows on the growth and productivity of sorghum crop (Wad Ahmed).

7.8. Early Cultivation of Cotton crop:

  • Objective: Determination of the minimum amount of rain collected at the beginning of the agricultural season that makes soil and air conditions suitable for fertilization and agriculture so that the plant can grow as long as possible before the dry season and use as much water as possible to obtain good production.

7.9. Reducing agricultural costs of sorghum crop:

  • Objective: Reducing the cost of agricultural operations while maintaining high economic productivity in the sorghum crop. The results obtained showed an increase in productivity when using the complete technical package (cultivar + fertilization + Dual Gold + Gizaprim).

II. Rain-Fed Crop Production Research Station (Gadarif):

Extensive application experiments for the period from 2000 up to date included six main themes: (Experiments of maize, sesame, cotton and sun flower varieties, fertilization experiments in terms of different types of fertilizers, their addition rates and addition dates, plant density experiments in seed rate,, Experiments of distance between lines and plants, observations about advancing crops).

1. Variety Trials:


1.1. Comparison of Sorghum varieties:

  • The experiment was carried out to compare three varieties of sorghum crop: Wad Ahmed, Tabat, Liberty.
  • Objective: Access to varieties of high productivity and suitable conditions of rainfed agriculture under the system of agriculture without plowing in the Gedarif region.

1.2. Comparison of Sesame varieties:

  • The experiment was carried out to compare three varieties of sorghum crop: Khidir, Promo, Hilan.
  • Objective: Access to highly productive varieties suitable for rain-fed agriculture under the zero-tillage system.

1.3. Comparison of Cotton varieties:

  • The experiment was carried out to compare different varieties of cotton nominated by the Sudanese Agricultural Research Authority for the purpose of reaching high yielding varieties suitable for the conditions of rainfed agriculture under the zero tillage system.
  • Varieties: Barak 67 B, Akala 93 H, Bar 57/12, BB 55, L 82.

1.4. Comparison of Maize varieties:

  • The experiment was carried out to compare the comparison of different varieties of maize crop with the aim of reaching high productivity varieties suitable for the conditions of rainfed agriculture under the tillage system.
  • Varieties: Hicorn 53, Hicorn 75, PAN 6480, Hudiaba-1, Other.

2. Fertilization Trials:


2.1. Effect of NPK and Urea fertilizer on sorghum crop (Wad Ahmed):

  • Objective: To reach the optimal fertilization program in terms of fertilizer type and appropriate doses.

2.2. Nitrogen Fertilizer Fragmentation:

  • Objective: Comparison of ammonium nitrate fertilizer at 1.5 N / fed, one batch at planting with the farmers' treatment (1 N at planting + 0.5 N after 4 to 6 weeks of planting).

2.3. Compound fertilizer additive (NPK):

  • Objective: To compare the addition of fertilizer NPK (17:17:17) with the fertilizer program used in the farmers program.

3. Row Space Trials:


3.1.  Distances between rows in the sesame crop (Promo):

  • Objective: To determine the most appropriate distance between planting rows for sesame in terms of productivity under the conditions of rainfed agriculture and the system of agriculture without tillage.

4. Weed Control Trials:


4.1. Weed Control in Sorghum Crops (Wad Ahmed) and Sesame (Promo):

  • Objective: To improve the resistance in herbs against herbicides in pests by finding alternatives to commercial application, as well as reducing the cost of using herbicides.


5. Plant Density Trials:


5.1. Study the effects distance between rows on the growth and productivity of maize crop:

  • Objective: To compare different densities of sorghum yield in order to reach the optimal density in terms of productivity under the conditions of rainfed agriculture and the tillage farming system.

6. Observation Trials:


6.1. Measuring soil moisture in farmer fields:

  • Objective: To monitor soil moisture content changes during the season and to link them to the achieved productivity.

III. Fruit and Vegetable Production Research Station (Umm Dawm):

Extensive applied research experiments for the period 2000 to date included three main themes: (testing of new varieties of cereal and vegetable crops, testing of planting dates and effects of fertilizer addition, testing of irrigation effect of magnetized water on vegetables and grains, off-season off-farm).

1. Vegetable Varieties Trials:

 
1.1. Effect of planting on seedlings on the productivity and quality of tomato crop, and comparison with direct seed cultivation:
  • Varieties: Peto111, UC82, Strain B.
  • Results: The method of planting seedlings is superior to that of direct planting by seed and significantly.
1.2. Response of hybrid tomato varieties to growth and production under winter season conditions in Khartoum area - Sudan:
  • Varieties: GS-12, VT-737., FA-38.
  • Results: The superiority of FA-38 in terms of productivity (58 tons / fed).
1.3. Comparison of tomato varieties for agriculture in the winter seasons:
  • Varieties: Peto86, Peto111, Castle Rock, UC82, Riogrande.
  • Results: The superiority of hybrid type Riogrande (32 tons / acre).
1.4. Effect of soaking the seeds of Galia melon before planting in a solution of cobalt diluted for two days on the productivity and quality of fruits and plant resistance to sudden wilt disease:
  • Varieties: Galia.
  • Results: Significant increase in the growth and size of roots, with a decrease in the incidence of sudden wilt disease.
1.5. Effect of plant density on the productivity and quality of Galia melon: Density: (12000, 9000, 6000) Plant / acre.
  • Results: Agriculture with the lowest plant density (6000 plants / feddan) ranked first in all measurements (vegetative and fruit growth). It was second in productivity and resistance to sudden wilt after average density (9000 plants / faden).
1.6. The effect of direct seed cultivation on the productivity and quality of sweet fennel crop yields, compared to planting with seedlings:
  • Varieties: Fennel.
  • Results: Agriculture is superior to seedlings.
1.7. Comparison of cucumber varieties for agriculture in winter seasons:
  • Varieties: Beta Alfa / hybrid., Fresco., Highmark / hybrid.
  • Results: Hybrid varieties outperformed their yeast yield (18-19 ton / fed).
1.8. Effect of cultivars and dates on the productivity and quality of broccoli yield under the environmental conditions of Khartoum - Sudan:
  • Varieties: MAAA2., MAAA1.
  • Results: The results showed that the best date for agriculture is October.
1.9. Effect of planting dates for the winter season on the productivity and quality of head lettuce under the conditions of Sudan:
  • Results: The results showed that the best date for agriculture is October.
1.10. Effect of cultivars and date of cultivation on the productivity and quality of the Egyptian bean crop:
  • Varieties: Agabat and Sulaimi.
  • Results: The results proved that the superiority of the class obstacles.

2. Cereal Crops Trials:

 
2.1. Comparison of maize varieties (10 hybrid + 2 open pollination):
  • Objective: To compare the performance of varieties.
  • Varieties: Tuber 1, Tuber 2 + Panar 6568., Panar 6480, High corn 75, Pacific 8222, Pacific 8288, Pacific 8327, Pacific 8362, Pacific 8450, Garst 8966, Garst 8527W.
2.2. Study of the response of three hybrids of maize to sprinkle with micronutrients:
  • Objective: Effect of micro-fertilization on productivity.
  • Varieties: Panar 6568, Panar 6480, High corn 75.
2.3. Comparison of varieties with different agricultural distances:
  • Objective: The effect of the variety, the distance of agriculture and the number of seeds on productivity.
  • Varieties: Kiriz, Medani
2.4. Response of Peanut (Sodiri) to Iron and Sulfur Treatment:
  • Objective: Impact of sulfur and iron on productivity.
  • Variety: Sodiri.
2.5. Study of the effect of variety, distance and fertilization on the productivity of peanuts:
  • Objective: Effect of species, distance and fertilization on productivity.
  • Variety: Kiriz, Medani.
2.6. Response of peanut crop to gypsum treatment:
  • Objective: Gypsum effect on the quantity and quality of the crop.
  • Variety: Kiriz.
2.7. Comparison of two varieties of sesame crop under three plant densities:
  • Objective: Effect of plant variety and density on sesame crop.
  • Varieties: Promo, Giza32.
2.8. Effect of Chemical Fertilization and Plant Density on Sesame Productivity Giza 32:
  • Objective: Effect of plant variety, plant density and fertilization on sesame crop.
  • Variety: Giza32.
2.9. Effect of plant variety and density on yield of sun flower yield:
  • Objective: The effect of cultivar and the distance of agriculture on the productivity of the sun flower crop.
  • Varieties: Panar 7392, Hysun 33.
2.10. Effect of planting date on yield of soybean crop:
  • Objective: The effect of planting date on soybean productivity.
  • Variety: Giza42.